Human Capital Development, National Stability And Nigerian Workforce Performance: Intrapreneurship Management Experience
A PAPER PRESENTED BY PROF. ABIODUN AMUDA-KANNIKE SAN, FCArb, FCIAP, FCE, FCIHP, ACTI, DEAN, FACULTY OF LAW, KWARA STATE UNIVERSITY, MALETE, VIA ILORIN, KWARA STATE AT THE 9TH ENTREPRENEURSHIP & SECURITY CONFERENCE/ INDUCTION/ GRADUATION/ AWARD CONFERMENT CEREMONY & 2ND BI-ANNUAL MANDATORY ADMINISTRATIVE TRAINING/ WORKSHOP HELD AT THE MULTI-PURPOSE HALL, CENTRE FOR ENTREPRENEURIAL DEVELOPMENT STUDIES (CEDS), COVENANT UNIVERSITY, OTA, OGUN STATE OF NIGERIA ON SATURDAY, 22ND DAY OF JULY, 2023
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There has arisen the growth and appreciation of “Intrapreneurship” around the world and in Nigeria of recent. There has been in place “entrepreneurship” around the world and in Nigeria for some time now through Modern history. We should however note that though intrapreneurship is an off-shoot of entrepreneurship, the two of these concepts are not totally the same.
It is therefore, important in this presentation while not loosing sight of the main topic to first of all appreciate the following concepts to enable us gain enormous understanding of the above topic and the concepts necessary in this regard are;
iii. Human Capital Development
iv. National stability
v. Nigerian Workforce Performance
Entrepreneurship can be referred to as the process of developing, organizing and the running a new business or a business in an innovative way with the aim of generating profits or more profit through the involvement of financial risk while carrying out the activities in a business concern. It entails creating something new with value added to the business. However, it must be noted that entrepreneurship is a relative concept, as most Scholars gives it different definition and there is no consensus of opinion.
Intrapreneurship is a system put in place which enables an employee to use his or her creativity to act as an “entrepreneur” in an organization, a company or an institution, be it public or private institutions.
Furthermore, intrapreneurship is an act or circumstance whereby the employees within an organization whether in private or public sectors, are given the liberty to use their “ideas” and “convert” such ideas into a “profit-making” model for the business or services. The risk involved in allowing this liberty for innovation and new changes/inventions or techniques are borne by the employers in most instances. Like entrepreneurship too, intrapreneurship is also a relative concept as various Scholars tries to advance their own idea of the definition of intrapreneurship but no one has been able to arrive at a consensus definition.
Human Capital Development
Human Capital itself consists of knowledge, skills and the health associated with the citizens/population in a particular place or country for the average life expectancy in such a way, as to allow such persons to have the opportunity of realizing their potential to be counted among the productive members of the country or a particular place/society. The examples of human capital includes; education, technical training and problem-solving skills.
Human capital can be seen as the determinant of the rate of development, the economic, technological and scientific progress of a country. The key components of human capital development therefore includes the investment in nutrition, the health care, the quality of education, the jobs and skills of the citizens.
National stability means, when a country is going through a good development in most of its sectors without the fear or fearful trend in those different sectors of activities, be it in terms of government, political activities, economic, social and financial activities vis-à-vis security networks.
It should be understood that stability can also be a situation in which something is not likely to move or change (backward or downward). The words in brackets are mine.
The Nigerian workforce means the people who are engaged in or who are available for work in Nigeria or those who are employed either by the private, public or self-employment sectors of Nigeria economy.
Furthermore, a work-force is said to refer to a concept dealing with a pool of human beings either employed or those who are not employed but always available for employment.
The workforce is said to be the workers who are engaged in a specific activity or enterprise.
DIFFERENTIATING BETWEEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INTRAPRENEURSHIP
Table 1: Entrepreneurship and Intrapreneurship advantages and disadvantages
|You are your own boss – independencyThe income increasesYou have the chance to be originalYou have part of excitement and adventureThere are a lot of possibilitiesSalary potential – you decide upon your own salary||Money pressure – giving up on the security of a regular paycheckLess benefits as the business is newLong working hoursMistakes are magnifiedAlldecisions must be made alone.|
|Ability to stay in a friendly, well known environmentPracticing your skills within an organization – lower riskUsing companies resources, good name and knowledgeAccess to customer, infrastructure||Reward may not be up to expectationInnovation may not be appreciated accordinglyYou can be innovative but to a certain limit – you are not your own boss|
Table 2: Entrepreneurship and Intrapreneurship similarities and differences for proper understanding
|Both involve opportunity recognition and definitionBoth require a unique business concept that takes the form of a product, protocol and serviceBoth are driven by an individual champion who works with a team to bring the concept to fruitionBoth require that the entrepreneur be business able to balance vision with managerial skill, passion with pragmatism and proactiveness with patienceBoth involves concepts that are most vulnerable in the formative stage and require adaptation over timeBoth entails a window of opportunity within which the concept can be successfully capitalized uponBoth are predicated on value creation and accountability to a customerBoth entails risk and require risk management strategiesBoth require the entrepreneur to develop creative strategies for leveraging resources.Both involves significant ambiguity Both requires harvesting strategies.||In start-up entrepreneurship, the entrepreneur take the risk in intrapreneurship, the company takes the risk other than related riskIn start-up the individual entrepreneur owns the concept and business, in intrapreneurship, the company typically owns the concept and intellectual rights with the individual entrepreneur having little or no equity in the ventures at all.In a start-up potential rewards for the individual entrepreneur are theoretically unlimited whereas in intrapreneurship an organizational structure is in place to limit rewards/compensation to the entrepreneur/employee.In a start-up venture, one strategic gaffing could mean instant failure in intrapreneurship the organization has more flexibility for management errors.In a start-up the entrepreneur is subject or more susceptible to outside influences, in intrapreneurship the organization is more insulated from outside forces or influence..|
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BACKGROUND TO THE ISSUE OF INTRAPRENEURSHIP
Pinchot (1984) defined intrepreneurs as “dreamers who do, or those who take hands-on responsibility for creating innovation of any kind, within a business”. In 1992, The American Heritage Dictionary acknowledged the popular use of a new word, intrapreneur, to mean “A person within a large corporation who takes direct responsibility for turning an idea into a profitable finished product through assertive risk taking and innovation.” The researcher is of the opinion that such risk taking and innovation coupled with the profitability accured from it will make an intrapreneural organization a veritable asset for nation building.
Koch (2014) goes further, claiming that intrapreneurs are the “secret weapon” of the business world. Based on these definitions, being on intrapreneur is considered to be beneficial for both intrapreneurs and large organizations. With companies support, while intrapreneurs create innovation for companies, such organization can be described as intrapreneurial organizations.
Intrapreneurial organizations are known to be operated with practice of a corporate management style that integrates risk-taking and innovation approaches as well as the reward and motivational techniques, that are more traditionally thought of as being the province of entrepreneurship.
The first written use of the terms intrapreneur; intrapreneurial and intrapreneurship date back to in1978 by Gifford Punchot III and Elizabeth Punchot. Later the term was credited to Gifford Punchot III by Norman Mathew on the April 17, 1982 issue of the environment. The first formal academic case study of corporate entrepreneurship or intrapreneurship was published in June, 1982, as a Master’s in Management by Homward Edward Haller, on the intrapreneurial creation of PRIME Leasing within PRIME Computer Inc (from 1977 to 1981). This academic research was later published as a case study by VDM Verlag as intrapreneurial success. A PRIME example, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language included the term intrapreneur in its 3rd 1992 Edition and also credited Pinchot as the originator of the concept.
Intrapreneurial organization will bring about an era in which jobs will be so many that employers go to schools to recruit young graduates with the view of making good use of their skills, potential and innovative capability to bring about productivity. This will go a long way in reducing unemployment and contribute to the growth of the organization. Pinchotts (1985) refer to intrapreneur as someone who possesses intrapreneurial skills and uses them within a company instead of using them to launch a business of his or her own. This will reduce the rate at which small and medium scale companies crumble. The individual can make use of its skill and innovation under an already established organization with a strong capital base and higher level of technology. This can be a tool for nation building as these intrapreneurial organizations will give job opportunities to unemployed youths with skills and innovative capability which doesn’t have the capital and corporate experience to start a business their own.
HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT AND INTRAPRENEURSHIP
It is said that the following “organization level factors” influence intrapreneurship and they are;
i. Organizational culture, (that is recognition, empowerment, experimentation, freedom to think, risk-taking cultire).
ii. Management Support (that is; permission, managerial support, encouragement).
iii. Rewards and Recognition (this has to do with rewards, cash promotions, bonuses and appreciation).
iv. Organizational structure; (this has to do with flexibility, organizational structure, support, formalization)
v. Work Autonomy; (It includes employees discretion, job autonomy, work design)
vi. Resources; It means time and financial support being available.
It is said that the intrapreneurship from studies conducted is gaining more ground among the employees in most organizations especially in Lagos State of Nigeria, but not significant enough especially in the other part of the country (Nigeria).
Human capital development in Nigeria is affected by lots of challenges which it is believed that intrapreneurship management promotion would be able to solve. These challenges are as follows;
i. Inadequate funding
ii. Lack of equipments, facilities and materials
iii. Lack of awareness
iv. Poor communication network
v. Poor implementation of research results
vi. Lack of legal provision
vii. Scarcity of records
viii. Unattractive working conditions for research workers.
The characteristics of human capital development can be seen among others as; experience education, training and health, whereas human capital development requires capability, capacity, culture, change and compliance, popularly called 5Cs.
The intrapreneurial capital development itself has to do with positive self-evaluation of ones ability to be committed, it includes identification of set objectives, feelings in control of life events especially in problem-solving creativity, changing constraints to resources, developing self-skills and applying it to make decisions.
NATIONAL STABILITY AND INTRAPRENEURSHIP
Without doubt the concept of intrapreneurship has a major impact on the national stability of Nigeria. It is when the economy is buoyant and progresses well that those factors which can cause national instability will be reduced or eradicated. These factors among others, which usually leading to national instability are;
ii. Low level of production/services
iv. Lack of Innovations
v. Communal crisis
vi. Bad performance of government or political leaders especially in terms of economic development.
The reason, why companies and government offices/enterprises increasingly adopt practices which enables intrapreneurship to thrive is to ensure survival, opportunities, and resistance to threats to businesses and services.
NIGERIA WORKFORCE AND INTRAPRENEURSHIP
It should be understood first of all that the issue of intrapreneurship has to do with the employees. Therefore both the Nigerian workforce and intrapreneurship has lots in common. The level of intrapreneurship will affect the output of the workforce of Nigeria. That is; if the level of intrapreneurship is higher and grows at a steady progression, then there is the tendency for a productive and efficient work force in Nigeria, however, where intrapreneurship level is nothing to write home about, then, there is the likelyhood of an inefficient and poor workforce vis-à-vis high level of unemployment/under-employment.
PROF. AMUDA-KANNIKE SAN THEORY ON INTRAPRENEUSHIP MANAGEMENT
It is important at this stage to propound the theory in this regard on intrapreneurship which is called Prof. Amuda-Kannike SAN theory on intrapreneurship. We had previously postulated two theories of “entrepreneurship” before now and discussed the issue of nano entrepreneurship which has been tactically accepted by the Federal Government of Nigeria in a cunny way but this time around, this theory is focusing its core interest on “intrapreneurship”. It opens itself up on this;
“THE POORER THE LEVEL OF INTRAPRENEURIAL MANAGEMENT, THE POORER THE HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT, NATIONAL STABILITY AND THE WORKFORCE”
We at this point in reference to the above theory states that it is relevant to the topic under discuss as it holds on to the following variables;
i. Tell the employers in the various companies, economic sectors and government agencies to completely eradicate intrapreneurship for at least six months, then check if human capital development will exist again in Nigeria.
ii. Tell the employers in the various companies, economic sectors and government agencies to make the practice of intrapreneurship punishable with imprisonment and fines, then in six months time, find out if the companies will exist or if national stability will not collapse and there will not be hyper insecurity and crisis that can lead to the collapse of a nation.
iii. Tell the country workforce to depend on the employers control of how to perform their duties with intrapreneurship inputs, then after six months check the level of performance of the country workforce vis-à-vis standard
WHAT THEN IS A THEORY IN ORDER TO CHECK IF THIS CAN BE SUSTAINED AS A THEORY
A theory has been said to connote a supposition or a system of ideas intended to explain something more especially, the one based on general principles independent of the thing explained.
A theory has been further defined as a contemplative and rationale type of abstract or generalized thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. It is the process of contemplative and rationale thinking often associated with such processes like observational study and research.
Accordingly, the said “Prof. Amuda-Kannike SAN theory on Intrapreneurship” is in line with the definition of the said word “theory” mentioned above and this is our own contribution to the “study of Intrapreneurship”. The formula below has been created in order to explain the theory and reference.
H.C.D x C
N.S x C
W.F x C
H.C.D = Human Capital Development
I.M = Intrapreneship Management
C = Country
6M = 6 months
N.S = National Security
I.M = Intrapreneship Management
C = Country
6M = 6 months
W.F = Work-Force
I.M = Intrapreneship Management
C = Country
6M = 6 months
Each of the variables are to be in percentage except the C; country which is 1 and months which is 6.
The higher the co-efficient value of intrapreneurship management, the higher, the value of human capital development, national stability and the work-force of a country.
However, where the co-efficient value of intrapreneurship management is lower or not in existent at all, the lower the value of human capital development, national stability and the work-force of a country.
We introduced the subject matter which is a “human capital development, national stability and Nigerian work-force performance: Intrapreneurship management experience”. The introduction also featured the definition of key terms especially those dealing with the subject matter which are;
iii. Human Capital Development
iv. National stability
v. Nigerian Workforce Performance
Furthermore, the work dealt with the differences between entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship while it equally provided background to the issue of intrapreneurship.
We were able to deal with this one after the other for a proper understanding by looking at the following issues;
i. Human capital development and intrapreneurship
ii. National stability and intrapreneurship
iii. Nigerian workforce and intrapreneurship
The work was concretized with a new intrapreneurship theory propounded by the Author of this work and which is code named; “Prof. Amuda-Kannike SAN, theory on Intrapreneurship Management”.
We accordingly conclude by stating that this conference is well timed and the topic choosen and discussed is appropriate, given the fact that lots of people do not know anything about intrapreneurship but they know more about entrepreneurship, meanwhile the two are not the same but must be utilized side by side if a nation must survive economically, politically and socially.
From the above work presented and having considered the new theory we have propounded as seen above, we hereby make the following recommendations;
i. There should be more articles to be published in reputable journals on this topic; “Human Capital Development, National Stability and Nigerian Work-Force performance: Intrapreneurship management experience”.
ii. There should be more conferences, seminars and other academic activities on the issue of intrapreneurship generally especially those dealings with Nigeria and other African countries.
iii. The government should as a matter of urgent necessity source for resource papers on the issue of intrapreneurship. The economic council of the Nation should make use of this paper/opinions as much as possible.
iv. The Prof. Amuda-Kannike SAN theory on intrapreneurship management must not be push aside. At least it will contribute to nation building, excellent work-force and economic development. It should not be sentimentally discarded.
v. The government should encourage intrapreneurship through adequate funding and the National Assembly are enjoined to bring up a bill on this issue.
vi. The tertiary institutions in African especially in Nigeria should establish centers and institutes for trainings and research on intrapreneurship.
vii. There should be more books to be written on intrapreneurship.
viii. The tertiary institutions curriculum should incorporated intrapreneurship as it has done for entrepreneurship.
A. BOOKS/NEWSPAPERS AND JOURNALS
1. Review of International Comparative management, Volume 12, Issue 3, December, 2011
2. Pinchot G. 1984; who is an Intrapreneur? In: Intrapreneuring: Why you don’t have to leave the corporation to become an entrepreneur. New York Harper & Row Pp 28-48
3. Chikwe Christian K. & Ors; Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria Journal of Education and Practice. Vol. 6 No. 28 of 2015
4. Prof. Abiodun Amuda-Kannike SAN; The effect of leadership and entrepreneur on law, security and national unity, pages 16-19
5. Prof. Abiodun Amuda-Kannike SAN; The effect on rule of law, security and national peace on entrepreneurship development and economic transformation in Law pages 17-19
B. INTERNET MATERIALS
1. Entrepreneurship: see https://online.standford.edu; Accessed through the internet on 9/7/2023 at 2:15am
2. Entrepreneurship; See https://www.edunote.com; Accessed through the internet on 10/7/2023 at 2am
3. Intrapreneurship: see https://www.elmhurst.edu.blog; Accessed through the internet on 10/7/2023 at 2:15am
4. Intrapreneurship: see https://www.nexford.org; Accessed through the internet on 10/7/2023 at 3:20am
5. Human capital development: see https://www.worldbook.org; Accessed through the internet on 10/7/2023 at 4am
6. Human capital Development; see https://www.worldbank.org; Accessed through the internet on 10/7/2023 at 7am
7. Stability; see https://dictionary.cambridge.org; Accessed through the internet on 10/7/2023 at 11am.
8. Workforce; see https://www.merriam.webster; Accessed through the internet on 11/7/2023 at 1:13am
9. Koch C. 2014: Rise of intrapreneur, Director magazine, see http://www.director.co.uk/theriseofthe-intrapreneur/therespond/ Accessed through the internet on 12/7/2023 at 1:30am
10. Kawasaki G. (2006): How to change the World; The Art of Intrapreneurship: see http://blog.guykawasaki.com/2006/01/the-art-of-intr.html; Accessed through the internet on 12/7/2023 at 2:05am
11. Olufemi Aladejobi; Evaluating the level of Intrapreneurs among firms employees in Lagos; see https://www.researchgate.net; Accessed through the internet on 12/7/2023 at 2:45am
12. Human Capital; see https://study.come; Accessed through the internet on 12/7/2023 at 5am
13. Capital in Intrapreneurship: https://www.researchgate.net; Accessed through the internet on 12/7/2023 at 1pm
14. Intrapreneurship; see https://www.researchgate.net; Accessed through the internet on 13/7/2023 at 1.29am
15. Theory meaning; https://www.collinsdictionary.com; Accessed through the internet on 14/7/2023 at 1:30am
 Except properly explained as we are doing in this work, entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship seems to look alike.
 This is an holistic definition of national security for the purpose of our understanding of this work.
 This definition of all encompassing as it is not restrictive in definition.
 This definition is almost in tandem with the above definition also.
 Review of International Comparative management, Volume 12, Issue 3, December, 2011
 Pinchot G. 1984; who is an Intrapreneur? In: Intrapreneuring: Why you don’t have to leave the corporation to become an entrepreneur. New York Harper & Row Pp 28-48
 Koch C. 2014: Rise of intrapreneur, Director magazine, see http://www.director.co.uk/theriseofthe-intrapreneur/therespond/ Accessed through the internet on 12/7/2023 at 1:30am
 Kawasaki G. (2006): How to change the World; The Art of Intrapreneurship: see http://blog.guykawasaki.com/2006/01/the-art-of-intr.html; Accessed through the internet on 12/7/2023 at 2:05am
 Chikwe Christian K. & Ors; Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria Journal of Education and Practice. Vol. 6 No. 28 of 2015
 There is the need to take cognizance of this issue always if the economy must move intrapreneurally for national stability.
 The nation can’t joke with its workforce and expect progress. The only way to move forward progressively is to develop intrapreneurship.
 Prof. Abiodun Amuda-Kannike SAN; The effect of leadership and entrepreneur on law, security and national unity, pages 16-19
 Prof. Abiodun Amuda-Kannike SAN; The effect on rule of law, security and national peace on entrepreneurship development and economic transformation in Law pages 17-19
 Meaning of theory ; see https://