PROF AMUDA-KANNIKE: Nano Entrepreneurship, Practices as Catalysts for Eradication of Social Vices and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria

PROF AMUDA-KANNIKE: Nano Entrepreneurship, Practices as Catalysts for Eradication of Social Vices and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria

A Paper Presentation by Prof. Abiodun Amuda-Kannike SAN, FCIAP, FCE, FCIArb, Dean, Faculty of Law, Kwara State Universty, Malete Via Ilorin, Kwara State, at the 6th Entrepreneurship and Security Conferment/ Induction/ Graduation/ Award Conferment Ceremony, Held at The Multi-Purpose Hall, Centre for Entrepreneurial Development, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State of Nigeria On Saturday 4th Day of December, 2021.

Title: NANO ENTREPRENEURSHIP, PRACTICES AS CATALYSTS FOR ERADICATION OF SOCIAL VICES AND POVERTY REDUCTION IN NIGERIA; NEED FOR NATIONAL ASSEMBLY TO PASS THE BILL NOW OR NEVER.

                        Presenter email: amudakannikeabiodun@gmail.com

Presenter Phone Number: 08033256756

INTRODUCTION

The issue of Nano Entrepreneurship which includes Nano technology has been a serious issue in Nigeria of recent and it seems that both the Federal Government of Nigeria most especially the National Assembly has decided to ignore it[1] or refused to pay attention to it notwithstanding the effect of this non-challant attitude to it among which are;

                                    (i)         Social Vices

                                    (ii)        Poverty

On Saturday, 31st day of July, 2021, we presented a paper on this issue at this same venue with title “The Practice of Nano Entrepreneurship, the issues, prospects and the position of the law; Nigeria as a case study”.[2] From that date till now, nothing has happened. The Federal Government did not even feel that we have talked neither has the two chambers of our National Assembly felt that anyone have spoken yet, social vices and poverty have been on the increase, no one can be too sure of their security in the country and when there exist no security, certainly the economy will be in shamble and gradually poverty is no more poverty but we are moving towards “abject poverty”.

NANO ENTREPRENEURSHIP

Nano Entrepreneurs means, the mass entrepreneurs, or Nano entrepreneurs, or those who start small business and hire three to five people. It also talks about the challenges faced by organizations who work with such entrepreneurs, the many non-profits and programme implementation agencies.[3]

Nano business can also be seen as a business made up of less than or sometimes 1, 2 or 3 persons with less than 1,000 dollars initial capital, with the idea of targeting cash on cash returns and does not as a matter of fact get involved necessarily on” long-term capital growth.[4]

The  morpheme “Nano” is commonly seen as a prefix for” billionth part of …; this can be looked at when describing it as” nanometer which connote” billionth part of a meter”. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the linguistic idea of “nano” originates from the classical latin “nanus” or its ancient Greek etonym “nanos” meaning” dwarf”[5]. There are so many ways to refer items or things as “nano”. Among several of these are; nano foods, nano factory, nano fabrication, nano manufacturing, nano fiber, nano structure, nano weapons, nano camera, nano business, nanogram, nano medicine, nano scale, nano coating, nano robot, nano sized, nano technology-based, nano liter, nano surgery.[6]

Nano-Preneur accordingly means a very small item or business which are usually owned by families, small scale, homelike, informal atmosphere, unsophisticated technology or inventory.[7]

Micro – Preneur on the  make other hand is bigger than nano – preneur, however it is a situation which may not have 5 employees but may hardly make up to 1,000 dollars in revenue.[8]

The nano businesses someone can get involved in ought to be understood and they are more and not limited to the followings alone;[9]

                        (i)         Intelligent toys manufacturing business.

                        (ii)        Nano scale water filters production business

                        (iii)       Commercial manufacturing business

                        (iv)       Crops nano sensors production business

                        (v)        Enhanced man-made polymer products.

                        (vi)       Improved fuels creation business

                        (vii)      Nano robots production

                        (viii)     Nano technology drug delivery system business

                        (ix)       Farm Sensor’s creation business

SMALL AND MEDIUM INDUSTRIES DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (ESTABLISHMENT ACT[10] DOES NOT COVER NANO ENTREPRENEURSHIP)

The Act did not mention Nano Entrepreneurship at all in the entire law and that being so, both the Federal Government and the National Assembly with all due respect cannot hide under the law to say that Nano entrepreneurship has been provided for and that there is no need for a law in this area of entrepreneurship.

Furthermore, in the interpretation of statutory provisions, there are literal canon or rule of interpretation. The rule bears other names, such as primary, principal or dominant rules of construction of enactments.[11]

The small and medium sized enterprises or small and medium-sized businesses are businesses whose personal numbers fall below certain limits.[12]

Small and medium enterprises (SMES) play a major role in economies. They are defined as those with investments in machinery and equipment not exceeding 500,000 naira and 2 million naira and not more than 50 and 100 paid employees respectively.[13]

The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)[14] has through its various circulars and intervention fund programmes generally defined small and medium enterprises (SMES) as entities with asset base of N 5 million and not more than N 500 million excluding land and buildings with employees between 11 and 200.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM[15]

The Ideal situation is that, to a large extent, our laws ought to have heavy influence on Nano entrepreneurship in order to eradicate social vices and poverty especially in Nigeria.

The current situation is that there exist no law to influence Nano entrepreneurship in order to eradicate social vices and poverty especially in Nigeria.

The measures put in place overtime this measures includes but not limited to small and medium industries development agency establishment Act which did not provide for Nano entrepreneurship nor Nano technology, incentives/logistics, making moves to encourage nano entrepreneurship without  knowing what Nano entrepreneurship is all about, teaching entrepreneurship in schools without any focus of what Nano entrepreneurship is all about, and few security activities.

The persistent problem with regards to the laws and Nano entrepreneurship, there exist no identification of this special area of entrepreneurship as it ought to be, so no specific law to develop this area of law, the various laws that are available in most countries, especially in Nigeria, uptil now do not recognise this aspect of entrepreneurship, rather those laws are even the canker-worms towards the development of Nano entrepreneurship as we shall soon discover in course of this work.

The effect of the problem; With respect to Nano entrepreneurship, the development and encouragement is very low and it will continue to increase social vices and poverty of most countries especially Nigeria, this will develop poverty, cultism, kidnapping, community upheaval, clamour for succession including various vices as only good laws are easy to enforce in the world today while in human laws are eventually resisted by the people who are ready to sacrifice their lifes.

The reason for the work is to make sure that Nano entrepreneur and the law is recognized and encouraged by law, and not only entrepreneurship. We have discussed this time without number but this time around, we have drafted a proposed bill on Nano entrepreneurship to ease the work of the legislatures.

The gap in the knowledge of Nano entrepreneurship and the law in the world all over especially in Africa and most especially Nigeria is that no practical steps to bring Nano entrepreneurship into reality and a draft proposed bill using the small and medium industries development agency establishment Act as a source of our draft for this Nano law is relevant.

NANO ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND PROVERTY

Both nano entrepreneurship which Nano technology is a part of placed their priority on creation of jobs to move the economy forward in order to reduce the level of poverty in an attempt to eradicate poverty. To do this, public policy(ies) must be activated to boost economic growth, most especially the law must also be put in place by the government especially the National Assembly.[16]

With respect to Nano Technology, it is not to make things small, but making new things/products. The essence of new products produce the effect of abundant opportunities. It is not in doubt that the components which makes nano-materials and nano-devises are small/tiny in nature but metamorphor sizing the materials and its behavioural activities which is the end product of actual importance. That is what entrepreneurship is interested in, just to make sure that poverty is eventually eradicated.[17]

There already exist the clamour for the existence of a Legal framework on social enterprises in Mexico[18] and that this will help those that are already operating to be more efficient and to grow. If that is the case for Mexico, Nigeria should not be left behind.

There are little businesses in Nigeria which includes hawking of ground-nuts, pure-water, sweets, fruits, and other nano businesses which are not up to the level of good businesses. Basically there exist no law to encourage this type of businesses which in most instances are being run by the masses or those who are in extreme position of poverty. This actually is affecting the economic growth of Nigeria.[19]

What the government has tried to do so far cannot be said to be the encouragement of nano businesses at all because ultimately those who benefits from it are not Nano Entrepreneurs but micro small medium enterprises (MSMES).[20]

Even those who enjoy the little support of the government from MSME are complaining that it is not significant in value not to talk of Nano Entrepreneurs who are not recognized under the law.[21]

In the categories of Nano Entrepreneurs are artists, event planners, battery chargers, independent dispatch riders, vendors, call center agents, fashion designers, vulcanizers, drycleaners, corner-shop owners, single retail marketers, repairers, painters, market women.

Most of the states in the federation has no specific law on Nano Entrepreneurship to assist in this area of business. The Federal Government do not even appreciate what Nano Entrepreneuship is all about. There is the need for both the States Houses of Assembly and The National Assembly to bring up a law to encourage Nano Entrepreneurship because they are attached to the survival of the masses, otherwise, the issue of cultism, social disorder, crisis and other security challenges shall continue to increase in the world, in Africa and especially Nigeria.

NANO ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIAL VICES

Entrepreneurship Development leads to employment creation, growth of the economy, this result in sustainable development. It means, that if people are not gainfully employed, the energies will be diverted to negative practices which are social vices, notwithstanding the fact that social vices are global issues.[22]

Bogoro[23] states that the role of entrepreneurship is job creation, economic growth and development. At the world level, almost all the countries are tilting towards capitalism and entrepreneurship for development.

The high level of social vices will be reduced or eradicated if the government for once, is able to recognize “Nano Entrepreneurship”. Social vices[24], has been described as deviant behaviours, such as illicit sex, drug addiction, evil or immoral behaviour such as murder, examination malpractice, thuggery and such other criminal tendencies.

The reality has shown us in Nigeria as at today that there are complete insecurity and high level of social vices in Nigeria. This has affected our economy and we are still pretending in Nigeria. With all due respect, let us go “the Nano way” for once and make sure the law is in place, then check up the rate of social vices in Nigeria, it will be seen that it will be reduced drastically rather than “trader money”, “old people money”, “school feeding system” and other loans or wasteful projects with all due respect. Put all this money into “Nano Entrepreneurship” and we shall see excellent result.[25]

SUMMARY

We have been able to show the relationship between the followings;

i.          Nano Entrepreneurship and Nano Technology.

ii.         Nano Entrepreneurship and Social Vices.

iii.        Nano Entrepreneurship and Poverty.

We have been able to also show the differences between;

i.          Nano Entrepreneurship which include Nano  technology and Small and Medium Scale Enterprises.

ii.         Nano Entrepreneurship not yet developed and other forms of Entrepreneurship.

We have been able to show that there is the need for the government to enact the “Nano Act” which will encourage Nano Entrepreneurship and ultimately lead to reduction in social vices and eradication of poverty. The proposed bill has been drafted making the work of our law maker/legislatures easier.

RECOMMENDATIONS

1.         It is recommended that the National Assembly should immediately look through the proposed bill which is part of this work with a view of presenting same formally before the House.

2.         It is recommended that the National Assembly should immediately see that the Nano Entrepreneurship Development Establishment Bill is passed into Law in order to reduce or wipe off social vices and poverty.

3.         It is recommended that we must now “work the talk” and not just talking alone, so each person who is present at this conference or who come across this presentation including the “proposed bill” should influence or put pressure on the National Assembly to make sure this bill is passed to law.

4.         It is recommended that the President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the state Governors should be pressurized to make sure that the bill becomes law and signed accordingly.

5.         It is further recommended that this institute should constitute monitoring team for the purpose of making sure the law recognize Nano Entrepreneurship.

CONCLUSION

It can be concluded that this work is; on one part normal talk we have been talking about the need for Nano Entrepreneurship to be recognized formally in our law but on the other hand, it is practical, as we have drafted a proposed bill on Nano Entrepreneurship for the National Assembly and States in Nigeria, we are not demanding any money for doing this.

Accordingly, we hereby submit this work to the Senate President of the National Assembly to be sent to him through this institute within the next 48 hours.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A.        BOOKS/JOURNALS/PAPER PRESENTATIONS

1.         G.Booij: Compounding and Construction morphology: R. Lieber, P. Stekaner (Eds). The Oxford University Press, Oxford (2009) Pp201-216

2.         Bogoro, S.E (2015): Entrepreneurship for Development, Convocation Lecture delivered at the 2nd Convocation ceremony of the Kaduna State University on Dec. 11, 2015.

B.        CASE LAWS

1.         Oyegun Vs Nzeribe (2010)7 NWLR (part 1194) page 577

C.         STATUTES

1.         Small and Medium Industries Development Agency Establishment Act 2003

D.        INTERNET MATERIALS

 1.        The practice of Nano Entrepreneurship, The Issues, Prospects and The Position of the Law; Nigeria as a case study: see; https://www.thenigerianlawyer.com; Accessed through the internet on 20/11/2021 at 10am

2.         Nano Meaning: See https://www.businesstoday.in; Accessed through the internet on 16/7/2021 at 1am

3.         https://www.fun-n-profit.com; Accessed through the internet on 16/7/2021 at 1:15am

4.         Difference; https://sowedidathingpodcast.com; Accessed through the internet on 16/7/2021 at 2am 

5.         https://www.starterstory.com; Accessed through the internet on through the internet on 16/7/2021 at 3am

6.         Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria; see: www.mondaq.com; Accessed through the internet on 24/11/2021 at 1:32pm

7.         Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria: See; https://www.africaportal.ord;  Accessed through the internet on 24/11/2021 at 1:44pm

8.         SMEDAN definition of SMES; see: https://highnetresources.com; Accessed through the internet on 22/11/2021 at 2:02pm

9.         A problem statement or statement of a problem is a concise description of an issue to be addressed or a condition to be improved upon. It identifies the gap between the current state and desired state of a process or product, focusing on the facts, the problem statement should be designed to address. See: Problem Statements https://wwh.indeed.com; Accessed through the internet on 22/7/2021 at 2:30am.

10.       What is Nanotech… see; https://www.weforum.org; Accessed through the internet on 26/11/2021 at 4:33pm

11.       Social Business Law: see; https://www.entrepreneur.com; Accessed through the internet on 26/11/2021 at 4:41pm

12.       Prof. Abiodun Amuda-Kannike SAN; The practice of Nano Entrepreneurship, The Issues: see; https://www.thenigerialawyer.com; Accessed through the internet on 26/11/2021 at 5:00pm

13.       Saudi Journal of Business and Management Studies; see https://www.researchgate.net; Accessed on 25/11/2021 at 4:02pm

14.       Social Vices; see: https://www.bsum.edu.ng; Accessed through the internet on 25/11/2021 at 4:56pm

15.       The Punch of November, Thursday 25, 2021 VOL. 45 No 22, 594 at www.punching.com; Accessed on 25/11/2021 at 1a.m

PROPOSED BILL TO THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY

NANO ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (ESTABLISHMENT) BILL, 2021

 

ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS

PART I – ESTABLISHMENT AND GOVERNING BOARD OF NANO

ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT AGENCY

SECTION:

1.         Establishment of Nano Entrepreneurship Development Agency.

2.         Establishment and Membership of the Governing Board.

3.         Schedule.

4.         Tenure of office, etc.

5.         Removal of members from office.

6.         Emoluments, etc.

7.         Disclosures of interest.

PART II – FUNCTIONS AND POWERS OF THE AGENCY

8.         Functions of the Agency.

9.         Powers of the Agency.

PART III – STAFF OF THE AGENCY

10.       Director-General

11.       Other employees of the Agency.

12.       Pensions, Cap.346 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 1990.

PART IV – FINANCIAL PROVISIONS

13.       Funds of the Agency.

14.       Expenditure of the Agency.

15.       Annual Estimates and Accounts.

16.       Annual Reports.

17.       Power to accept Gift.

18.       Power to sorrow.

19.       Investment, Cap. 449 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 1990.

20.       Exemption from Tax.

Nano Entrepreneurship Development

Agency (Establishment) Bill, 2021

PART V – LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

21.       Limitations of suit against the Agency, etc. Cap. 379 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 1990.

22.       Service of Documents.

23.       Restriction on Execution against Property of the Agency.

24.       Indemnity of Officers. 25. Secrecy.

26.       Directive by the Minister, etc.

27.       Regulations.

28.       Interpretation.

29.       Citation.

SCHEDULE.

NANO ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT AGENCY

(ESTABLISHMENT) BILL, 2021

AN ACT TO ESTABLISH THE NANO ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT AGENCY TO BE CHARGED WITH THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR PROMOTING AND FACILITATING THE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES IN THE NANO ENTREPRENEURSHIP SUB-SECTORS AND FOR CONNECTED PURPOSE.

 [Dec., 2021]            Commencement
  ENACTED by the National Assembly of the Federal Republic of Nigeria:
PART I – ESTABLISHMENT AND GOVERNING BOARD OF NANO ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT AGENCY
1. -(I) There is established an agency to be known as the Nano Entrepreneurship Deve1opment Agency (in this Bill referred to as “the Agency”)Establishment of Nano Entrepreneurship Deve1opment Agency
(2)  The Agency: (a) shall be a body corporate with perpetual succession and a common seal and (b)  may sue and be sued in its, corporate name.  Deve1opment Agency
2. -(I)There is established for the Agency a Governing Board consisting of a Chairman and six other part-time Members to be appointed by the President.Establishment  and Membership of the  Governing Board
(2) The appointment of the seven part-time members shall be made from the 6 of the geo-political zones. 
(3) the following are ex-officio members of the Board (a) (i) the Federal Ministry of Industry; (ii) the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology; (iii) the National Planning Commission; (iv) the Agricultural or Industrial Research Institutes; (v) the Indigenous Fabricators and Manufacturers of Machinery; (vi) the Federal Ministry of Finance; (vii) the Development Banks   (viii) the Bank of Industry; (ix) the Manufacturers’ Association of Nigeria ; and (x) the National Association of Nano Entrepreneurship; and (b) the Director-General of the Agency. (c) 1 NGO Chairman from the 36 States including Abuja. 
(4) There shall be a Secretary to the Board who shall be appointed by the Board. 
3.  The supplementary provisions set out in the Schedule to this Act shall have effect with respect to the proceedings of the Board and other matters contained therein.Schedule

Nano Entrepreneurship Development

Agency (Establishment) Bill, 2021

Tenure of Office, etc4. The Chairman and members of the Board, other than ex-officio members: (a) shall hold office for a period of 4 years on such terms and conditions as may be specified in their letter of appointment ; and (b) may be re-appointed for another period of 4 years and no more.
Removal of members from Office, etc5.—(l) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 4 of this Act, a member may at any time be removed from office by the President for inability to discharge the functions of his office (whether arising from infirmity of mind or body or any other cause) or for misconduct.
 (2)       A member of the Board may resign his appointment by a notice in writing under his hand, addressed to the President and that member shall, on the date of the receipt of the notice by the President, cease to be a member of the Board.
Emoluments, etc6.         A member of the Board shall be paid such emoluments, allowances and benefit as the Minister may, with the approval of the President, from time to time,
approve.
Disclosure of Interest7.—(l) A member of the Board who is directly or indirectly interested in any matter being deliberated on by the Board or is interested in any contract made or proposed to be made by the Agency shall, as soon as possible after the relevant facts have come to his knowledge, disclose the nature of his interest at a meeting of the Board.
 (2)       A disclosure under subsection (I) of this section shall be recorded in the Minutes of Meetings of the Board and members concerned shall: (a) not, after the disclosure, take part in any deliberation or decision of the Board; and (b) be excluded for the purpose of constituting a quorum of any meeting of the Board for any deliberation or decision with regard to the subject matter in respect of which his interest is so disclosed.
  PART Il—FUNCTIONS AND POWERS OF THE AGENCY  
Functions of the Agency.8. The Agency shall be responsible for: (a) initiating and articulating ideas for Nano Entrepreneurship policy thrusts. (b) serving as a vanguard agency and focal point for rural industrialisation. poverty alleviation and eradication, technology acquisition and adaptation, job creation and sustainable livelihood, within the definition of the term Nano Entrepreneurship. (c) promoting and facilitating development programmes, instruments and support services to accelerate development, modernisation, networking and linkage of Nano Entrepreneurship; (d) mobilising internal and external resources, including technical assistance for Nano Entrepreneurship, their support institutions; trade associations, and non-governmental organization; d(i). monitor the effect of Nano Entrepreneurship on poverty at the end of each year. d(ii), monitor the effect of Nano Entrepreneurship on social vices at the end of each year.

Nano Entrepreneurship Development

Agency (Establishment) Bill, 2021

 (e) overseeing, co-ordinating and monitoring development in the nano entrepreneurship sub-sector; (I) designing, packaging and promoting nano entrepreneurship which is not the same as small and medium scale industries. (g) providing industrial extension services to nano technology fabricators of machinery and beneficiaries of credit loans; (h) establishing liaison between research institutes, local fabricators and nano entrepreneurship (i) linking nano entrepreneurs to sources of finance, technology, technical skill development and management; (j) facilitating and promoting and development of standard designs and quality assurance for machinery and equipment, and commercialising them to end-users; (k) promoting and providing access to industrial infrastructure, including estates and layouts, and incubators (1) providing necessary assistance to nano entrepreneurs in the marketing of their products; (m) promoting ancilarisation, sub-contracting, clustering and networking relationship (n) providing and promoting strategic linkages within nano entrepreneurship. (o) encouraging and promoting strategic linkages within nano entrepreneurship and between nano entrepreneurship and large scale industries; (p) establishing and co-ordinating the institutional development and activities of Nano Development Centres in Nigeria; (q) collaborating with the Agricultural Research and Mechanisation Centres and Agro-industrial Schemes in Nigeria; (r)liaising with external agencies for support and development of nano entrepreneurship in Nigeria; (s) listing products that nano entrepreneurship have substantial internal capacities to manufacture to meet domestic market for Federal Government’s patronage and deletion or restriction on the schedule of importable goods; (t)recommending to the Federal Government, from time to time, in consultation with other relevant agencies and organizations, on applicable tax and tariff regimes and other financial incentives for promoting the development of nano entrepreneurship including tax holiday. (u) monitoring the implementation of and compliance with Federal Government directives, incentives and facilities for development of nano function of the Agency in order to promote government policies in or outside Nigeria;  
Interpretation28. In this Bill, “Agency” means the Nano Entrepreneurship Development Agency established under section 1 of this Bill.   “Board” means the governing Board established for the Agency under section 2 of this Act.   Nano Entrepreneurship means, the mass entrepreneurship or those who start businesses and hire less than one, two or three to five people. It also means very small insignificant business for the survival of the masses but different from small and medium scale industries or business. Nano technology is a branch of Nano Entrepreneurship and forms part of Nano Entrepreneurship for societal development.   “Minister” means the Minister charged with the responsibility for Industries as defined by the National Council on Industry as Nano Entrepreneurship.   “President” means the president of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.  
Citation29. This Bill may be cited as the Nano Entrepreneurship Development Agency (Establishment) Bill, 2021.

[1]  We have drafted a bill of what we can call a proposed bill for members of the National Assembly to proceed with it in order to make Nano Entrepreneurship a reality

[2]  The practice of Nano Entrepreneurship, The Issues, Prospects and The Position of the Law; Nigeria as a case study: see; https://www.thenigerianlawyer.com; Accessed through the internet on 20/11/2021 at 10am

[3] Nano Meaning: See https://www.businesstoday.in; Accessed through the internet on 16/7/2021 at 1am

[4] See: https://www.fun-n-profit.com; Accessed through the internet on 16/7/2021 at 1:15am

[5] G.Booij: Compounding and Construction morphology: R. Lieber, P. Stekaner (Eds). The Oxford University Press, Oxford (2009) Pp201-216

[6] Ibid

[7] See: Difference; https://sowedidathingpodcast.com; Accessed through the internet on 16/7/2021 at 2am 

[8] Ibid

[9] See: https://www.starterstory.com; Accessed through the internet on through the internet on 16/7/2021 at 3am

[10] Small and Medium Industries Development Agency Establishment Act 2003

[11] Oyegun Vs Nzeribe (2010)7 NWLR (part 1194) page 577

[12] Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria; see: www.mondaq.com; Accessed through the internet on 24/11/2021 at 1:32pm

[13] Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria: See; https://www.africaportal.ord;  Accessed through the internet on 24/11/2021 at 1:44pm

[14]SMEDAN definition of SMES; see: https://highnetresources.com; Accessed through the internet on

22/11/2021 at 2:02pm

[15] A problem statement or statement of a problem is a concise description of an issue to be addressed or a condition to be improved upon. It identifies the gap between the current state and desired state of a process or product, focusing on the facts, the problem statement should be designed to address. See: Problem Statements https://wwh.indeed.com; Accessed through the internet on 22/7/2021 at 2:30am.

[16] What is Nanotech… see; https://www.weforum.org; Accessed through the internet on 26/11/2021 at 4:33pm

[17] Ibid

[18] Social Business Law: see; https://www.entrepreneur.com; Accessed through the internet on 26/11/2021 at 4:41pm

[19] Prof. Abiodun Amuda-Kannike SAN; The practice of Nano Entrepreneurship, The Issues: see; https://www.thenigerialawyer.com; Accessed through the internet on 26/11/2021 at 5:00pm

[20] Ibid

[21] Ibid

[22] Saudi Journal of Business and Management Studies; see https://www.researchgate.net; Accessed on 25/11/2021 at 4:02pm

[23] Bogoro, S.E (2015): Entrepreneurship for Development, Convocation Lecture delivered at the 2nd Convocation ceremony of the Kaduna State University on Dec. 11, 2015.

[24]  Social Vices; see: https://www.bsum.edu.ng; Accessed through the internet on 25/11/2021 at 4:56pm

[25] See the Punch of November, Thursday 25, 2021 VOL. 45 No 22, 594 at www.punching.com; Accessed on 25/11/2021 at 1a.m

Published By: EDITOR

CARL UMEGBORO is a prolific writer, public affairs analyst and an Associate, Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (United Kingdom). He holds a Bachelor of Laws degree (LLB Hons) and a renowned columnist in all national newspapers in Nigeria, Africa Press Reviews, TheWorldNEWS and numerous foreign media including Park Chester Times, New York, USA. Umegboro is a regular guest-analyst to many TV and radio programme on crucial national issues. To send your opinions, articles and reports to the Admin, contact: +234 (0) 802 318 4542, +234 (0) 705 710 1974, +234 (0) 817 318 4542. Email: carl@carlumegboro.com, umegborocarl@gmail.com

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